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Over Libya

Over Libya

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Today, February 17, is National Day in Libya - the day the Revolution broke out (in Benghazi). A recipe and a warm greeting to all Libyans.
Libya has been inhabited since ancient times by the Libu tribes, probably of Berber origin. Around 1000 BC, Phoenician colonies were established on present-day Libyan territory. Greek colonization and Roman conquest followed. In the 6th century AD, Libya became part of the Byzantine Empire, and in 643 it was conquered by the Arabs. He knows the Ottoman rule between the 16th and 20th centuries.
In 1932, Libya was colonized entirely by Italians. At the end of 1942, Allied (Anglo-French) forces entered Libya. Libya proclaimed its state independence on December 24, 1951, under the name of the United Kingdom of Libya, during the reign of King Iddris Es-Senoussi.

On September 1, 1969, a military coup led by a group of 11 officers led by Colonel Moammar Al Gadhafi overthrew the monarchy.

After popular movements overthrew the leaders of Egypt and Tunisia, its western and eastern neighbors, Libya experienced the beginning of a large-scale uprising on February 17, 2011.
The political and security situation in Libya, five years after the anti-Gaddafi revolution and after two electoral cycles, remains critical, with two parliaments (one in Tobruk, the result of the June 25, 2014 elections, recognized by the international community, and another in Tripoli) and two governments, each supported by coalitions of armed groups.

Za & # 8217atar

From the category & # 8222wonderful things I didn't know existed & # 8221, today I present to you za & # 8217atar. Za & # 8217atar is a spice that comes from the Middle East and that came to me because Dan Cherecheș gave it to me the last time I was in Baia Mare. I liked it and it made me curious, I did a little research and found out the following:

Za & # 8217atar defining a family of aromatic plants that include marjoram, oregano, thyme and others with similar aromas. At the same time, define the mixture of these dried plants (can be all or only part) with dried sumac, salt, maybe pepper, occasionally lemon juice and lightly fried sesame seeds. The nice part is that you don't have to go to Jordan after the za & # 8217atar, you can prepare your own version at home. Use a teaspoon of oregano, a teaspoon of marjoram, half a teaspoon of basil, half a teaspoon of thyme, a tablespoon of sesame seeds that you fry in the non-stick pan together with a teaspoon of salt (sprinkle in the pan with the juice of to half a lemon) and a teaspoon of sumac (found newer in any hypermarket). Why would you bother? Because za & # 8217atar is good over hummus, over rubbed beans, over a stew, over cheese cream or over eggplant salad. Not to mention that it is very good on bread greased with extra virgin olive oil or sunflower (from the country).

I, for you, would try. You can also find it ready-made in Arabic shops. Stay healthy.

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In Bucharest it can be found at the Turk's shop on Berzei Street. 12 ron 1 kg bag.

:) Now I have to prepare Za’atar, I bought cardamom because you made me want it! : p
Thank you, your blog is a delight! :)

I grew up with & # 8222zatar & # 8221 (I didn't know it was written with & # 8216), my mother was in love with this mixture of spices that somehow appeared through & # 821790 and around us, with the landing of enterprising Arabs. I put it everywhere, but especially on some small homemade pork steaks by the stove flame, with a grill of water. Eh, what memories & # 8230

& # 8222the landing of enterprising Arabs & # 8221 & # 8230
foaaaarte hard, congratulations!

If you still mentioned Arab shops, do you offer any details with store locations in Cluj, where we can find another one?
If you can't name it (don't advertise it), at least the GPS coordinates :)
Thank you, and good luck!

I have never eaten bread spread with oil and such spices in my life

Ady, to eat Arabic glue with zatar & # 8230a wonder! Or Turkish glue. If you want I have a recipe for super lipsticks from a very floury girl.

Recipes are like good jokes & # 8230 are simply shared)

I put it on humus every Wednesday & # 8230 :) so I understand you perfectly. :)

INCIDENT horror in the Mediterranean. More than 45 people DIED after the ship carrying them sank

The number of rescued people has so far reached 75, including 60 Tunisians, five people from sub-Saharan Africa, two Moroccans and a Libyan, said Rachid Bouhawala, a press officer at the Tunisian Ministry of Defense.

The rescue operations continue in coordination with the army, the units of the Maritime Guard and the Civil Protection, writes Agerpres.

At least 180 illegal immigrants were aboard the shipwreck off the Kerkennah Islands.

Kerkennah is known as one of the main illegal routes to Europe from Tunisia. Since the beginning of this year, about 1910 Tunisian migrants have arrived in Italy by sea, according to the International Organization for Migration.

Libyan funding scandal. Sarkozy, indicted for & # 8222 association of criminals & # 8221

At the end of four days of interrogation and a 40-hour interrogation concluded on Monday evening, Nicolas Sarkozy was indicted for the fourth time in this sprawling case.

The information, revealed by the online publication Mediapart, was confirmed for AFP by the National Financial Prosecutor's Office.

& # 8222I was most astonished to learn about this new indictment (& # 8230). My innocence is again disregarded by a decision that does not bring the slightest evidence of any illicit financing & # 8221, the former French president reacted on Facebook.

& # 8222Finally I will prove my complete innocence. I will fight with all the determination and energy I am capable of. Injustice will not win & # 8221, Nicolas Sarkozy added.

On January 31, magistrates indicted one of his former collaborators, Thierry Gaubert, on suspicion of receiving funds from Muammar Gaddafi's Libyan regime that allegedly fueled Sarkozy's campaign.

Through an auxiliary indictment at the end of January, the National Financial Prosecutor's Office extended the investigations to these acts of & # 8222 association of criminals & # 8221, paving the way for the indictment of several new suspects, as well as for the aggravation of the prosecution of some already accused protagonists. including Sarkozy.

& # 8222Everyone sees that this is an unprecedented decision, consistent with the investigations carried out. The proceedings are ongoing & # 8221, said Vincent Brengarth, a lawyer for the Sherpa anti-corruption association, a civil party in the case.

The former head of state was already indicted in March 2018 for & # 8222passive corruption & # 8221, & # 8222 concealment of embezzlement of public funds & # 8221 and & # 8222legal campaign financing & # 8221. He was also placed under judicial control.

During his last hearing, in June 2019, Sarkozy denounced a & # 8222complot & # 8221, and then refused to answer questions from magistrates.

Nicolas Sarkozy in particular invoked his presidential immunity, reproaching judges for leaving the authorized perimeter of the investigation and saying that the misappropriation of public funds of a foreign country, of which he is accused, is a crime that does not exist in French law.

The Paris Court of Appeal largely rejected Sarkozy's appeal and validated almost entirely the investigations launched eight years ago in this multi-pronged affair.

Sarkozy's lawyers have also appealed the decision, a judicial source told AFP.

The investigation was opened after the publication by Mediapart in 2012, between the two rounds of the presidential election, of a document meant to prove that Sarkozy's election victory five years ago was financed by Muammar Gaddafi's regime.

Following the testimonies of some Libyan dignitaries, the consultation of notes from the secret services in Tripoli and the accusations brought by an intermediary, the magistrates managed to gather in seven years of work a series of disturbing clues that outline this theory.

However, no indisputable material evidence has been found so far, even though suspicious fundraising has led to nine charges so far.

In November 2016, businessman Ziad Takieddine & # 8211 & # 8211; and in early 2007 five million euros to Sarkozy, then interior minister, and his chief of staff, Claude Gueant.

In addition to this case, in which investigations are still ongoing, the former head of state will be tried between November 23 and December 10 for & # 8222corruption & # 8221 in the so-called & # 8222hearing & # 8221 business. He is suspected that, together with his lawyer Thierry Herzog, he tried to obtain secret information from a high magistrate, Gilbert Azibert, in a judicial procedure.

Sarkozy will also be tried between March 17 and April 15, 2021 for illegally financing his other presidential campaign, that of 2012, in the Bygmalion business, in which he is accused of exceeding the campaign spending ceiling, writes Agerores

He raised more than $ 1 million from the sale of children. She died of cancer before being tried

It all lasted until September 12, 1950, when the governor held a press conference and revealed what was happening at the adoption center. It was also learned that Georgia Tann had made nearly $ 1 million from the sale of children, or about $ 11 million in today's money.

Tann was immediately indicted, but fate caused her to die three days later, in September 1950. Thus, she was no longer held accountable, as a uterine cancer knocked her down, almost as an irony. of what he had done throughout his life. The judge who helped her resigned after the investigation and died in 1954. Soon, the doors of the adoption center were closed permanently.

The emperor who never slept

The Byzantine Empire irresistibly attracts and fascinates forever those who research its history. A 1,000-year-old Christian civilization without which one could not imagine the world as it is today. The glorious age of Justinian the Great, crowned emperor of Byzantium on August 1, 527, left traces that not even the 1,500 years that have passed since then have been able to erase. European politics, art, law, and theology will perhaps forever be marked by an age in which meritocracy has overthrown favoritism, and work and wisdom have found a suitable solution to any problem.

The good-faith Emperor Justinian the Great

In 518, Justin I ascended the throne of the Byzantine Empire. He had been a simple peasant - according to some historians he had Daco-Roman origins - but, due to his exceptional physique, he had managed to enter the guard of the imperial palace as a young man. The death of Emperor Anastasia I (491-518) finds Justin in the position of commander of the imperial guard. Since Anastasia had no descendants, the throne of the Byzantine Empire was occupied by Justin.

Historical sources praise Justin's skillful military qualities, but he does not forget to mention that he lacked intellectual instruction almost entirely. Almost unanimously, historians agree that the one who really coordinated the affairs of the empire was his nephew, Flavius ​​Petrus Sabatus, who, being adopted by his uncle, was named Justinian.

The emperor who never slept

Flavius ​​Petrus Sabbatius, who would become Emperor Justinian the Great, was born in 482 south of the Danube, in the village of Tauresium, near Scopje, the capital of today's Macedonia.

It is not known if Justinian was adopted before or after his uncle became emperor. What is certain is that he stayed around his uncle at a very young age, having the opportunity to receive a special education, becoming an exceptional connoisseur of the law and history of the Roman Empire but also a very good theologian, tradition attributing the hymn "Born One" in the first part of the Holy Mass.

He remained famous for his incredible ability to work, which is why he was called by contemporaries "the emperor who never sleeps", saying that 5 hours of sleep a night was enough.

In 523 he married Theodora, a 20-year-old actress, causing controversy among the high aristocracy, as this profession was very little seen at the time, in the Church there were even canons that stopped her practitioners from Communion.

On April 1, 527, he was officially appointed associate emperor, although the affairs of the empire had long been exclusively in his care, and on August 1, after the death of Emperor Justin I, he became the sole ruler of the empire. Being a good connoisseur of the problems and possibilities of the empire, Justinian's dream was to become a new Constantine the Great, to recapture the western Roman territories, ruled at that time by the Germanic migratory tribes. He strongly believed in a political and economic order in the Mediterranean basin, with its capital at Constantinople, with a single Christian emperor.

Indeed, by the end of his life, due to a skilful policy, but also a special inspiration to choose the most capable collaborators, regardless of the social category from which they came, most of his dreams were realized. .

The birth of the Byzantine style

After less than 5 years of reign, Justinian had to deal with a situation that could not only have cost him the throne, but even the future of the empire would have been jeopardized due to the extremely tense external situation: Byzantium then had open fronts both in the East, with Persia, and in the West, with the Germanic tribes.

What was it about? About the famous "Nika" uprising, which, if we were to categorize it according to the modern meaning, we could say that it was a "revolution of the supporters". The rebellion began as a street fight between the galleries of two sports teams, but which ended in the devastation and even demolition of half of Constantinople.

After the suppression of the revolt, Emperor Justinian resumed his plans, and after only 40 days began the construction of the famous "St. Sophia" Cathedral, on the site of a church of the same name, destroyed during the uprising. The construction of the monumental place of worship lasted only 5 years, during which time the emperor did not prepare any effort or any expense. The importance of this cathedral does not derive so much from the splendor of the execution as from the novelty of the style, so that, if one could say that a certain style can have its origin in a man, then the Byzantine style is due to the emperor Justinian and the architects he hired. .

In addition to "Saint Sophia", in Justinian's time, impressive churches were built from Ravenna (Italy) to Damascus (Syria). In fact, all the buildings erected in the following centuries, both in the East and in the West, were inspired by those built during Justinian's time, and the Gothic (medieval) and Islamic architectural styles are direct descendants of Justinian architecture.

Politics, religion and law

When Justinian took over the Byzantine imperial crown, the Western Roman Empire practically ceased to exist. Rome had been conquered more than 50 years before the Heruli, and moreover the whole West was under German occupation. Justinian's political ambition was to rebuild the empire during the reign of Emperor Theodosius I (379-395). Not without sacrifices, this was achieved both through diplomacy and the famous generals Belizarie and Narses.

From a religious point of view, the Justinian era was still marked by theological confrontations between Orthodox and Monophysites, although this issue had been resolved on the occasion of the Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in Chalcedon in 451. At the same time, the Fifth Synod was held. Ecumenical (553).

Emperor Justinian was a staunch Orthodox, a staunch supporter of the Church and a supporter of the development of monasticism. After Theodosius I proclaimed Christianity as the only religion accepted in the state, Justinian legislation came with new reinforcements, suppressing the right of non-Christians to access public office.

Notable for this era is the reform of the judiciary, by codifying and updating Roman law, a measure that was strictly required, due to the confusion created by the countless laws given by previous emperors, often without taking into account those previously given. Thus, they had come to the point where the laws contradicted each other or became completely inapplicable. Beyond the practical value of this measure, for the time of Justinian, there is also a special significance for those who study law, even today.

Thanks to Justinian's initiative, Roman law is known and, moreover, it is unanimously acknowledged that all current European legal systems have been inspired by the Justinian Code.

40% of the urban population, killed by bubonic plague

The end of Justinian's reign probably marks the culmination of the most brilliant period of the Byzantine Empire. At his death in November 565, Justinian left an empire of almost double size, but no one believed in the retention of the recaptured territories under the Byzantine scepter. Despite very skilful political strategies, a series of events impossible to anticipate and manage have considerably weakened the empire. Of these, the first recorded pandemic in history is noteworthy. Between 541-542, the bubonic plague destroyed over 40% of the empire's urban population. Historians compare the magnitude of this disaster to that caused by the same disease in fifteenth-century Europe, which wiped out nearly two-thirds of the population at the time.

The dramatic decline in population led, implicitly, to both the collapse of the imperial economy and a sharp reduction in military numbers. The effects were felt especially during the succession of Justinian to the throne, Emperor Justin II, who, abandoning the diplomatic line of his predecessor, lost in a few years all the territories conquered with such sacrifice.

Despite all the hardships, the Byzantine Empire still had 900 years of Christian-Orthodox history and spirituality to live on, until the tragic event of May 29, 1453.

The sports show in the middle of the first millennium (AD) consisted of fights with gladiators (bloodless), but especially in horse racing. The fans were divided into 4 "galleries", being named, according to the color of the clothes worn by the competitors, "white", "red", "green" and "blue". However, these forms of association meant more than is understood today through the gallery of a sports team. Usually, a "color" gathered members of a certain social class and functioned as a political party, often able to influence imperial decisions.

In the case of the "Nika" uprising, the main ones were the "greens" and the "blues". The "greens" were the representatives of the middle and lower classes, and among the "blues" were especially the nobility. (Hence the correlation of the phrase "blue blood" with one's noble origin).

Although before being proclaimed emperor, Justinian had supported the "blues", then applied the tactics of impartiality, so that after a street fight with victims, which followed a race in the racecourse, the emperor ordered the punishment of the guilty regardless of color. The emperor's decision led to a coalition of "greens" and "blues", the new group formed taking the name "Nika" - in Greek: "victory", "victorious" - the movement also acquired a social character of protest against the new tax system. introduced by the emperor. Eventually, everything degenerated into hooliganism.

After 8 days of siege (January 10-18, 532), during which half of the buildings of Constantinople had been destroyed, the revolt was suppressed by armed force, by General Belizarie, speaking of a number of 30,000 victims.

This is what Emperor Justinian exclaimed at the end of the "Saint Sophia" Cathedral, the construction of which he himself had supervised, being convinced that it was much more beautiful than the temple built by the Jewish emperor Solomon, about which the Old Testament relates.

The "eighth wonder of the world" was the residence of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, serving the Holy Mass until May 29, 1453, when the Turks led by Muhammad II (1444-1446 1451-1481) captured Constantinople, ending The millennial Byzantine Empire. After this painful event for Eastern Christianity, "Saint Sophia" will be transformed into a mosque, and the interior mosaics, of inestimable artistic and theological value, will be destroyed or covered with plaster.

In 1935, the first president of the Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, transformed the "Saint Sophia" Cathedral into a museum, a state in which it is still today.

There are voices, both Orthodox and Roman Catholic, calling for the restoration of the cathedral and its return to the liturgical circuit. Moreover, requests have even been made to the European Parliament to impose this on Turkey as a condition for joining the European Union.

From the theater stage, to the throne of the Empire

Who was Theodora and how did she become the actress of the consort of the most brilliant emperor of Byzantium, after Constantine the Great?

Teodora came from a family without noble origins, even poor, living next to a circus. As a teenager, orphaned, Teodora became an actress, a completely dishonorable profession for those times.

Despite all the controversy, Theodora later proved to be the perfect wife for the future Emperor Justinian, but also a valuable supporter and adviser in all the decisions the emperor made. This precedent of the emperor's marriage to the chosen one of the heart and not to persons imposed by interests or conjunctures was viewed with sympathy by the descendants and even taken as an example, many of the Byzantine emperors who followed Justinian marrying women who did not belong to the high. aristocrats.

The sources of time describe Empress Theodora as a particularly beautiful and intelligent woman. During the uprising, "Nika" will play a decisive role, convincing the emperor not to leave the city. The empress will have a special influence on the laws enacted in her time, especially those concerning the protection of women and children. For example, according to the new legislation, women received the right of inheritance, and those who committed any crime were allowed, if the gravity of the deed was not very high, to become nuns, in order to avoid their aggression in prisons.

The law prohibiting the marriage of a senior imperial official to a woman from a lower social class was also repealed.

Although Empress Theodora conscientiously assumed all the duties that her new quality imposed, contemporaries appreciating her special care and compassion for the helpless, yet her past was an inexhaustible source of slander, probably launched by her envious aristocratic circles for . Beyond all this, one thing is certain, Emperor Justinian would not have been able to make his time so glorious if he had not had a wife like Theodora with him.

Before turning 50, Empress Theodora dies of an unknown form of cancer. Her body was buried in the Church of the "Holy Apostles", one of the splendid buildings erected in Constantinople by the imperial couple.

Justinian and Orthodoxy
Justinian was a great supporter and defender of Orthodoxy
Justinian considered himself the new Constantine the Great. He believed in a Christian political, religious, and economic order throughout the Mediterranean region, united and ruled from Constantinople by a single Christian emperor. In this sense he directed his wars and the colossal activity for the reconquest of the western provinces that had been invaded by the Germanic tribes (vandals, heruli and, especially, the Ostrogoths).

Probably the most remarkable event took place in 529 when the Academy of Athens (famous for being founded centuries before by Plato) which contributed to the spread of Neoplatonic philosophy was placed under state control by Justinian and then closed. Paganism has been removed. The worship of Ammon at Augila in the Libyan desert was abolished, and those who worshiped Isis on the island of Philae in Egypt, and those who did not repent, were executed in Constantinople. Justinian often sent missionaries and converted many tribes. In Asia Minor alone, John, bishop of Ephesus, converted 70,000 pagans.

Justinian took a very firm stand in support of Orthodoxy and fought against many heresies during his reign. At the beginning of his reign he enacted by law the faith in the Holy Trinity and the Incarnation, and later declared that he would punish by law all those who disturb Orthodoxy. He made the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed a unique symbol of the church and gave legal force to the canons of the first four Ecumenical Synods. By order of the sovereign, the Fifth Ecumenical Council was established to take place in 553, to condemn the teachings of Origen and to affirm the definitions established in the Fourth Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. He also tried to ensure religious unity within the Empire through his (unsuccessful) dialogue with non-Chalcedonians. He named Theodora, a convert from Monophysitism, as a special envoy to deal with those who rejected the teachings of Chalcedon. Apart from Monophysitism, other ecclesiastical tensions had arisen between East and West: the controversy of the "Three Chapters" reached the top of the list (see external links).
Hagia Sophia as originally designed, without minarets.
The emperor built many churches. He commanded the construction of over 90 churches for new converts and generously supported the construction of churches within the Empire. The most beautiful buildings of that time are considered to be the Sinai Monastery and the Church of St. Sophia in Constantinople. Under St. Constantine most of the churches built were dedicated to the Mother of God. Having a vast education, St. Justinian became diligently involved in the education of the clergy and monks, asking them to be instructed in rhetoric, philosophy, and theology. He did not neglect any opportunity to secure the rights of the Church and the clergy, to protect and extend monasticism: his codes of law contained many decrees on donations, foundations, and administration of church property. clergy, performing divine services, and episcopal jurisdiction.

The standardization of the Holy Liturgy by St. Justinian included the Cherubim, and tradition attributes to it two hymns frequently used in the Church, the Only Begotten and the Soft Light.

In his personal life, St. Justinian was extremely pious, and often fasted. During Lent he did not eat bread or drink wine, but lived only on water and vegetables. He is also mentioned for promoting the idea of ​​a "symphony" between church and state.

However, Justinian is often criticized by some secular sources as a despot. For example, the hagiography of St. Eutychius depicts a more complicated portrait of the emperor:

"After the death of Patriarch Mina, the Apostle Peter appeared to the king in a vision and, pointing to Eutychius, said, 'Let him be your bishop.' Right at the beginning of his period in patriarchal service, St. Eutychius [and not Emperor Justinian himself] convened the V Ecumenical Council (553), in which the Holy Fathers condemned the heresies that increased and anathematized them. However, after a few years, a new heresy appeared in the Church: Aftartodochetism, which preached the incorruptibility of the body of Christ. St. Eutychius vehemently denounced this heresy, to which even the emperor Justinian was inclined, turning his wrath upon the saint. By order of the emperor, the soldiers took the saint to the church, took his patriarchal vestments, and sent him into exile to the monastery of Amaziah (565). ”[1]

However, Fr. Asterios Gerostergios in his book Justinian the Great: The Emperor and the Saint, rejects the claim that Justinian fell in his last years of life into Aftartodochetism. Este în unanimitate acceptat faptul că, după o lungă domnie în timpul căreia Iustinian nu a precupeţit nici un efort în încercarea de a aduce pe monofiziţi înapoi la Biserica Ortodoxă, oamenii erau plictisiţi de bătrânul împărat. Astfel, este acceptat faptul că Iustinian a aderat la erezia aftartodochetistă, care a fost iniţial o formă extremă a monofizismului, şi l-a depus pe Patriarhul Eutihie al Constantinopolului pentru presupusul lui refuz de a se conforma acestei învăţături.

Presupusul decret al lui Iustinian care impunea aftartodochetismul nu s-a păstrat, iar singura sursă contemporană care face referire la acest fapt este istoricul Evagrie. Majoritatea istoricilor au acceptat informaţia lui Evagrie ca fiind adevărată, motivând prin faptul că Iustinian fie se convertise la erezie înainte de sfârşitul vieţii sale, fie a sucombat datorită senilităţii. Aceşti istorici au relatat astfel decretul de depunere atât a lui Eutihie, cât şi a lui Anastasie, patriarhul Antiohiei. Pr. Gerosterios spune:

Că ei au fost depuşi din cauza refuzului lor de a accepta edictul pe care noi nu-l considerăm a fi adevărat din următoarele motive:

1. Episcopul Africii de Nord, Victor, un duşman al împăratului, menţionează depunerea lui Eutihie în Cronica sa, dar nu redă nici un motiv pentru aceasta. Dacă acesta ar fi ştiut cu adevărat ceva despre un nou edict, şi dacă, şi mai mult, ar fi ştiut de acceptarea de către Iustinian a ereziei aftartodochetiste, nu numai că ar fi amintit aceasta, dar ar fi subliniat evenimentul, pentru a-l defăima pe Iustinian care l-a exilat şi trimis la închisoare.

2. Dacă Eutihie fusese depus din acest motiv, succesorul său, Ioan Scolasticul, ar fi trebuit să accepte un astfel de decret. Nu avem absolut nicio informaţie privind acceptarea edictului de către acesta, şi nici o mărturie că el a acceptat erezia. Din contră, viitorul papă, Sf. Grigorie cel Mare, care era atunci reprezentantul papal la Constantinopol, îl laudă pe noul patriarh, Ioan, pentru sfinţenia sa şi pentru credinţa lui ortodoxă.

3. Acelaşi Grigorie îl laudă pe Iustinian pentru credinţa lui ortodoxă şi nu face nicio referire la edict. Acesta spune că Patriarhul Eutihie era origenist. Din acest motiv, W.H. Hutton şi A. Knecht au susţinut că aceasta a fost cauza pentru depunerea lui Eutihie.

4. Când Patriarhul Eutihie s-a reîntors pe tronul său din Constantinopol în 577, nu a menţionat motivele detronării sale.

5. Episcopul Ioan al Efesului, spre deosebire de Evagrie, nu face nicio referire la ceea ce s-a aflat în Antiohia privind depunerea lui Anastasie.

Pentru toate motivele de mai sus, putem doar să tragem concluzia că Iustinian nu a emis niciodată sau nu a planificat să emită un edict care să impună aftartodochetismul. Un astfel de act ar fi fost în antiteză cu toată lucrarea sa teologică anterioară, şi este clar că nu ar fi ajutat scopului principal de unificare. În plus, o astfel de schimbare radicală la o vârstă atât de avansată, credem că este o gândire total nenaturală. În ceea ce priveşte depunerea celor doi Patriarhi menţionaţi, credem că nu are nicio legătură cu un astfel de edict, deoarece nu există nicio bază din sursele contemporane pentru o astfel de concluzie. Noi suntem de părere că depunerea lor s-a datorat altor motive, probabil nesupunerea la ordinele împăratului.

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”PROFEŢIA” sumbră pe care a făcut-o Gaddafi pentru OCCIDENT

Pe măsură ce criza migranților din Europa ia amploare pretutindeni , multe din mass-mediile europene își reamintesc ultima profeție sumbră a liderului libian Muammar Gaddafi făcută cu câteva luni înainte de moartea sa violentă .

Acum ascultați voi , oameni ai NATO . Bombardați un zid care stătea în calea migrației africane în Europa și în calea teroriștilor Al -Qaeda. Acest zid a fost Libia . Voi l-ați distrus. Sunteți idioți , ș i veți arde î n iad pentru miile de imigranți din Africa , precum și pentru sprijinirea al – Qaeda. Așa va fi . N-am mințit niciodată . Și nu mint acum „, a declarat Gaddafi într-o scrisoare deschisă, obținută de cotidianul rus Zavtra și publicată în mai 2011 cu câteva luni înainte ca liderul libian să fi fost ucis .

În zilele decăderii domniei sale de patru decenii , dictatorul libian Muammar Gaddafi a făcut o profeție amenințătoare . Dacă regimul său va cădea, jihadiști i vo r subjuga nordul Africii , impunând pe scară largă violență și teroare .

„ Al-Qaeda consideră toate persoanele ca fiind necredincioși „, a declarat Gaddafi într-un discurs ținut cu câteva săptămâni înainte ca NATO să-și fi început intervenția militară în Libia . „ Ei consideră pe toți oamenii dușmanii lor . Ei nu știu decât să ucidă. "

Islamiștii vor veni cu duiumul din Afganistan , Algeria și Egipt , a avertizat el , zicând: „ Acestea sunt bestii cu turbane .”

Acum : cu Franța blocată într-o bătălie cu extremiștii din Mali cu grupurile cuplate cu Al- Qaeda care iau masic ostatici în Algeria și cu Marea Britanie , Germania , și Franța care le spun cetățenilor lor să părăsească Libia , din cauza unei amenințări nespecificate , omul, pe care mulți l-au considerat nebun, s-ar putea să nu fi atât de nebun în cele din urmă.

Ironia este că el a avut dreptate

„ Ironia este că a avut dreptate „, a declarat Christian Leuprecht , profesor asociat de Studii Politice la Colegiul Militar Regal și la Universitatea Reginei .

„ Aici avem o situație care este scăpată de sub control „, a declarat Abdel Kerim Ousman , profesor asociat de științe politice la Colegiul Militar Regal . „Gaddafi a spus de fapt , dacă doriți să distrugeți [ Libia], rezultatul va fi preluarea de către jihadiști .”

În timp ce se pare că Gaddafi a avut dreptate, mulți dau vina pe Occident pentru că nu a anticipat ce se va întâmpla după căderea Libiei .

A ni de zile , Gaddafi a avertizat despre islamiștii radicali care forfoteau în interiorul Africii de Nord . În mod repetat , el s-a proclamat o „partizan ferm al stabilității .”

Prin închisoare și violență , jihadiștii au fost suprimați , secați de influență și resurse .

Dar în 2011 , poporul libian au terminat cu regimul Gaddafi . La începutul acelui an , protestele au început răspândirea în toată țara , oferind NATO motivele pentru a interveni . Î n octombrie , Gaddafi era mort . Câteva zile mai târziu , Occidentul și- a încheiat campania militară , și așa cum a prezis Gaddafi , Libia a căzut în haos și a apărut posibilitatea ca jihadiștii să preia puterea și controlul militar.

Libia: Zeci de morți și sute de răniți în Tripoli

Dintre cei 52 de luptători ucişi în luptele de vineri, ce au avut loc în cartierul Abu Slim din sudul orașului Tripoli, 17 membri ar fi fost au fost &bdquoexecutaţi&ldquo, a declarat Hashem Bichr, un responsabil militar al Guvernului de Unitate Naţională.

Numărul victimelor nu a putut fi confirmat de către surse independente. Cifrele oferite vineri de Ministerului Sănătăţii libian erau de 28 de morţi şi peste 100 de răniţi.

Reprezentantul special al ONU Martin Koblert a menționat faptul că milițiile rivale au folosit în cursul luptelor artilerie grea şi tancuri, și a îndemnat toate părţile să se abţină de la astfel de atacuri.

Forţele guvernului de uniune națională sunt care sprijinite de ONU au anunţat pe pagina lor de Facebook că au învins miliţiile rivale şi că au preluat controlul unei închisori unde erau încarceraţi lideri-cheie ai regimului demis al lui Muammar Gaddafi, inclusiv ultimul său premier, Baghdadi al-Mahmudi şi fostul şef al serviciilor de securitate Abdullah Senussi.

Închisoarea Al-Hadhba a fost sub controlul coaliţiei miliţiei Fajr Libia, care a capturat Tripoli în 2014 şi a înfiinţat un guvern condus de Khalifa Ghweil.

Luptele pentru preluarea controlului asupra oraşului Tripoli au început când NATO a susţinut o revoltă populară care l-a inlăturat de la putere pe Muammar Gaddafi.

Cele mai recente lupte au început în jurul unui complex de vile de lux, care până în luna martie a servit ca sediu al miliţiilor loiale lui Ghweil, care a fost demis când noul guvern de uniun națională a preluat mandatul anul trecut. Ghweil refuză să recunoască noua administraţie.

Dovezi INCONTESTABILE arată că pe Terra a existat un război nuclear cu mii de ani înaintea erei noastre

Dacă ar fi întrebaţi cînd a fost folosită pentru prima oară, în istoria umanităţii, arma nucleară într-un conflict armat, majoritatea oamenilor ar răspunde fără nici cea mai mică urmă de îndoială: în 6 august 1945, cînd bombardierul american Enola Gay a aruncat bomba atomică la Hiroshima.

Din punctul de vedere al datelor istorice oficiale şi recunoscute, acesta ar fi răspunsul corect. Numai că, în ultimul timp, istoria dă înapoi din ce în ce mai des în faţa unor dovezi incontestabile ale faptului că un război atomic a avut loc la un moment dat pe Pămînt.
În Mahabharata, grandiosul poem epic al Indiei vechi, sînt descrise episoade ale unui război nuclear.

Există multe locuri pe Pămînt ce par a fi fost distruse de o explozie nucleară, dar cel mai uimitor dintre toate este Mohenjo Daro („Muntele Morţilor“), oraş antic ale cărui ruine au fost descoperite în al treilea deceniu al secolului trecut. Situat, astăzi, pe teritoriul Pakistanului, Mohenjo Daro face parte dintr-un ansamblu de aşezări aparţinînd aşa-numitei civilizaţii Harappa, cunoscută şi sub numele de civilizaţia Văii Indusului. Unul dintre cei care şi-au dedicat viaţa studierii acestor ruine este englezul David W. Davenport, care, după 12 ani de cercetări, a publicat, în 1979, o carte cu titlul „Distrugere Atomică – 2000 î.Hr.“, volumul fiind construit pe ipoteza că Mohenjo Daro nu a căzut în ruină cu trecerea timpului, ci sfîrşitul său a fost consecinţa unei deflagraţii nucleare.

Povestea extraordinară a Muntelui Morţilor porneşte de la descoperirea primelor ruine şi arată că, o dată cu scoaterea la lumină a vestigiilor vechii aşezări, arheologii s-au pomenit în faţa unui crater cu un diametru de aproape 50 de metri, în interiorul căruia totul, inclusiv piatra, este topit sau cristalizat ca şi cum ar fi fost pîrjolit de o temperatură uriaşă. La marginea acestui crater, cărămizile sînt topite şi sudate între ele pe partea dinspre locul presupusului impact. Cercetătorii exclud din start posibilitatea ca zona să fi fost pîrjolită de erupţia unui vulcan, întrucît nu există nici unul în apropiere.

Zona devastată se întinde pe o arie avînd diametrul de trei kilometri. La tot pasul se întîlnesc pietre negre, bucăţi diforme dintr-un soi de piatră care au dat mult de gîndit arheologilor, pînă cînd s-a descoperit că e vorba de fragmente de vase ceramice, topite unele într-altele, probabil în urma supunerii la aceeaşi uriaşă temperatură. Atunci cînd excavaţiile au ajuns la nivelul străzilor, arheologii s-au confruntat cu o privelişte macabră. În poziţii care dintre care mai stranii, au fost găsite sute de schelete.

Civilizaţie avansată

Descoperirile de la Mohenjo Daro nu sînt nicidecum singulare. Aceleaşi scene apocaliptice se întîlnesc şi în oraşul vecin, Harappa, unde, de asemenea, s-au găsit schelete pe străzi. Săpăturile arheologice le-au permis cercetătorilor să afirme că civilizaţia Harappa era foarte avansată. Oraşele din regiune sînt construite după un plan riguros, cu străzi drepte ce se întretaie perpendicular. Casele au sofisticate sisteme de canalizare, superioare celor ce pot fi întîlnite în prezent în multe oraşe ale Indiei şi Pakistanului. Cine au fost însă întemeietorii acestor oraşe, nu se ştie.

Nivel ridicat de radioactivitate

În comunitatea ştiinţifică există o nesfîrşită dezbatere privind vechimea civilizaţiei Harappa. Metodele tradiţionale cu radio-carbon au arătat că ruinele datează cam din anul 2500 î.Hr., dar, luînd în calcul efectele unei presupuse explozii nucleare, riscul unei erori este foarte mare. Unii autori avansează ideea că războiul nuclear care a distrus aceste civilizaţii a avut loc acum 8.000-12.000 de ani. Cazul a fost studiat în secolul trecut de mai mulţi savanţi sovietici, care au descoperit că scheletele au un nivel ridicat de radioactivitate. Într-una din aceste locaţii a fost găsit un schelet cu un grad de radioactivitate de 50 de ori mai mare decît cel normal.

Un strat de cenuşă radioactivă a fost descoperit şi în apropierea oraşului Rajasthan din India, unde, din această cauză, proiectul de construire a unui nou cartier a fost suspendat. De altfel, oraşul în sine are o nedorită faimă în ceea ce priveşte incidenţa cazurilor de cancer şi de copii ce vin pe lume cu diverse malformaţii. O altă mărturie peste timp a unui război nuclear în India antică este uriaşul crater Lonar, situat la cîteva sute de kilometri de Bombay şi avînd un diametru de 2.154 de metri. În întreaga zonă nu există nici un fel de resturi ale vreunui meteorit şi, potrivit savanţilor, Lonar este singurul crater într-un strat de bazalt, roca fiind supusă unui şoc intens, cu o presiune mai mare de 600.000 de atmosfere, în stare să modifice însăşi structura sa. Semne ale unui război devastator din antichitate pot fi întîlnite şi în alte colţuri ale lumii, printre care enigmaticul deşert de sticlă libian, situat în apropierea platoului Saad.

Cînd prima bombă atomică a explodat în New Mexico, datorită căldurii extraordinare, nisipul deşertului s-a transformat în sticlă verde. În secolul trecut, mai multe descoperiri arheologice, din diferite zone ale globului, au scos la iveală şi alte straturi de astfel de sticlă. Vechi însă de mii de ani. Descoperit în 1932 de arheologul Patrick Clayton, deşertul de sticlă se întinde pe o arie foarte largă, măsurînd 130 de kilometri în lungime. Lăţimea ajunge pe alocuri la 53 de kilometri. Numele său provine de la faptul că întinderea aridă este presărată cu bucăţi de sticlă, de o puritate incredibilă, proporţia de siliciu fiind de 98%. Un articol apărut în iulie 1999 în revista britanică „New Scientist“ a demonstrat că deja faimoasa Sticlă din Deşertul Libian (SDL) este cea mai pură astfel de substanţă de pe planetă.

Peste 1.000 de tone din acest material se întind pe o suprafaţă de sute de kilometri. Unele bucăţi sînt de dimensiuni mari, cîntărind pînă la 30 de kilograme, dar cele mai multe sînt mici, semănînd cu nişte cioburi, ca şi cum o sticlă uriaşă ar fi fost sfărîmată de o forţă colosală. În limbaj ştiinţific, cioburile verzi sînt numite tectite. Provenienţa lor este un subiect de aprinse dezbateri. Sticla este cu certitudine extrem de veche. Astfel, se ştie că vînătorii preistorici îşi confecţionau din acest material diferite unelte ascuţite. Un scarabeu sculptat în sticlă verde a fost descoperit în mormîntul lui Tutankhamon.

Teoria propusă de o parte a comunităţii ştiinţifice este că sticla e rezultatul impactului cu un corp cosmic. Există însă serioase probleme cu această teorie. De ce nu există nici un crater de impact? O întrebare rămasă pînă astăzi fără răspuns. Nici măcar sondările la mare adîncime cu ajutorul ultimelor tehnologii nu au reuşit să găsească urma vreunui crater. Mai mult, sticla verde este prea pură pentru a fi rezultatul unui impact atît de brutal. Se poate, deci, ca un antic război nuclear să fi creat toate aceste urme? Nimeni nu poate da un răspuns. Pe cît de neverosimilă pare teoria, pe atît de multe dovezi pun oamenii de ştiinţă în imposibilitatea de a o combate.

„Rădăcinile“ de sticlă

Experimentele atomice din New Mexico, de la sfîrşitul celui de-al doilea război mondial, au arătat faptul că o deflagraţie atomică topeşte siliconul din nisip şi transformă suprafaţa pămîntului în sticlă. Fulgerul poate şi el transformă cîteodată nisipul în sticlă, dar formele lăsate au întotdeauna forma unei rădăcini. Ramificaţiile acesteia pătrund în adîncime. Astfel, păturile de sticlă verde nu pot fi puse în nici un caz pe seama acestui fenomen natural.

Dezbaterile născute în sînul comunităţii ştiinţifice de problema tectitelor au fost rezumate într-un articol publicat în august 1978 în revista „Scientific American“. Aici, un reputat cercetător american a încercat să formuleze o teorie plauzibilă care să explice existenţa misteriosului strat de sticlă verde. „Cea mai probabilă sursă a sticlei verzi este Luna. Dacă tectitele provin de pe Lună, înseamnă că pe satelitul pămîntului a existat cel puţin un vulcan care a erupt în ultimii 750.000 de ani. Cred că teoria vulcanului lunar este singura posibilă şi mă simt forţat să o accept“, scria John O’Keefe, autorul articolului.

O civilizaţie dispărută

• Multiple dovezi arată că civilizaţia vechilor indieni este veche de zeci de mii de ani. Cu toate acestea, pînă în 1920 majoritatea experţilor erau de acord că originile civilizaţiei indiene ar trebui căutate undeva în jurul secolului al IV-lea î.Hr. Această teorie a fost spulberată însă de descoperirea ruinelor unor oraşe precum Harappa, Mohenjo Daro („Muntele Morţilor“), Kot Diji, Kalibanga sau Lothal. Arheologii nu ştiu nici astăzi cine sînt cei ce au construit aceste oraşe, dar încercările de a data ruinele (cunoscute acum drept „Civilizaţia Văii Indusului“) au produs cifre ce se învîrt în jurul anului 2500 î.Hr. Mulţi oameni de ştiinţă cred că acestea sînt rămăşiţele Imperiului Rama, descris în anticile texte Mahabharata şi Ramayana. Aceste texte descriu şi un război nimicitor purtat de imperiu împotriva unui duşman extrem de puternic. Textele povestesc despre armele ucigătoare folosite în conflict: mingi uriaşe de foc ce puteau distruge un întreg oraş, „Strălucirea lui Kapila“ ce putea transforma 50.000 de soldaţi în cenuşă instantaneu şi suliţe zburătoare ce puteau distruge şi cele mai rezistente forturi.

• Şi în Biblie este descrisă o posibilă explozie nucleară. Analiştii Cărţii Sfinte cred că în capitolul în care se vorbeşte despre sfîrşitul oraşelor Sodoma şi Gomora ar fi redată imaginea unei astfel de explozii şi aruncă în dezbatere o întrebare la care nu s-a găsit încă răspuns: cum putea fi descrisă scena de foc şi fum fără ca cineva, pînă la acea dată, să fi văzut o explozie nucleară? Biblia spune că Dumnezeu a pedepsit cele două cetăţi slobozind asupra lor o ploaie de pucioasă şi foc. Singurii salvaţi au fost Lot, femeia lui şi cele două fiice ale lor. Îngerii trimişi de Domnul l-au silit pe Lot să părăsească oraşul ca să nu piară şi el pentru „nedreptăţile cetăţii“. La plecare, îngerii i-au sfătuit să nu se uite înapoi, nici să se oprească în cîmp, ci să fugă în munte. Asupra celor două cetăţi s-a abătut o ploaie de pucioasă şi fum care a distrus nu numai aşezările, ci şi toate împrejurimile lor, pe toţi locuitorii cetăţilor şi toate plantele ţinutului aceluia. Femeia lui Lot, care s-a uitat înapoi, s-a prefăcut în stîlp de sare. A doua zi, Avraam a văzut pe locul celor două cetăţi şi împrejurul lor, ridicîndu-se de la pămînt „fumegare, ca fumul dintr-un cuptor“.

Secretul lui Oppenheimer

• Şeful Proiectului Manhattan, prin care SUA a construit cele două bombe nucleare ce au distrus oraşele Nagasaki şi Hiroshima, cercetătorul J. Robert Oppenheimer (foto medalion), a adăugat şi el o umbră de mister peste deja faimoasa sticlă verde. Într-un interviu pe care l-a acordat imediat după ce a asistat la primul experiment atomic, cercetătorul a citat din Bhagavad Gita: „Acum am devenit Moartea, Distrugătoarea de Lumi“. Cu altă ocazie, intervievat la Universitatea Rochester, la şapte ani după istoricul experiment, şi întrebat dacă acela a fost primul experiment atomic din istorie, replica sa a fost: „Păi, da, în istoria modernă“.

Video: Σύλληψη ανώτερου στελέχους της Αλ Κάιντα στη Λιβύη (May 2022).


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